百万英镑(第1幕第3场)

无论是风里,还是在雨里,我都在这里守候着你~
本期原创课件分享者:宁波市五乡中学郑老师教材分析:

本单元的主要内容是根据马克·吐温的短篇小说《百万英镑》改编的戏剧剧本。教材的学生用书和练习册的阅读和听力中的剧本片断可组成一个完整的故事。

《百万英镑》是马克·吐温著名的讽刺小说代表。故事讲述了两个年老富有的兄弟一天突发奇想:假如一位聪明、诚实的外地人落难伦敦,他举目无亲,除了一张百万英镑的大钞以外一无所有,而且他还没法证明这张大钞就是他的,那么,这样一个人会有怎样的命运呢?哥哥说这人会饿死,因为无论去哪儿这人也花不掉那张大钞,因为他会当场被抓住。弟弟说他饿不死。兄弟两个就这样争执不下,后来弟弟说他愿出两万英镑打赌,这人靠百万英镑大钞无论如何也能活三十天,而且进不了监狱。他们选定了一个流浪到英国的美国人亨利·亚当斯,并把百万英镑大钞借给了他。出乎意料的是,人们对这位暴富的穷人拼命地巴结,从免费吃饭,免费买衣服,到免费住宿,他的社会地位也不断上升,此外,他还赢得了一位漂亮小姐的爱情和三万英镑的银行的利息,拥有了一份体面的工作,过上了幸福的生活。作者用漫画的笔法勾勒不同人物在“百万英镑”面前的种种丑态,幽默滑稽,趣味横生,就如同一幅世态讽刺画,令人忍俊不禁;作者还无情地揭露了资本主义社会金钱至上的残酷现实,也透射出整个社会的悲哀。

文本理解:

剧本改变了叙事的视角、节奏和幅度。原作以Henry为叙事视角,略写两兄弟和Henry谈话过程,详述Henry的内心感受,详见原文:

They saw many honest faces go by that were not intelligent enough; many that were intelligent, but not honest enough; many that were both, but the possessors were not poor enough, or, if poor enough, were not strangers. There was always a defect, until I came along; but they agreed that I filled the bill all around; so they elected me unanimously, and there I was now waiting to know why I was called in. They began to ask me questions about myself, and pretty soon they had my story. Finally they told me I would answer their purpose. I said I was sincerely glad, and asked what it was. Then one of them handed me an envelope, and said I would find the explanation inside. I was going to open it, but he said no; take it to my lodgings, and look it over carefully, and not be hasty or rash. I was puzzled, and wanted to discuss the matter a little further, but they didn't; so I took my leave, feeling hurt and insulted to be made the butt of what was apparently some kind of a practical joke, and yet obliged to put up with it, not being in circumstances to resent affronts from rich and strong folk.

剧本保留了背景、角色和主要情节,延续了语言风格,探讨了主题意义,但是改变了时态(从一般过去时到一般现在时),利用旁白、台词和舞台说明生动刻画并揭露了那个时代“金钱至上”的社会现象。

本文是剧本中第一幕第三景,围绕一个极为荒唐的bet展开。抓住这一主线既能帮助学生理解作者是如何运用ironic humor无情地揭露“金钱崇拜”,又能培养学生的分析性思维和评判性思维。文本中不仅含有常用的词汇和短语,更有“冲突满溢”的精彩对白供学生理解、咀嚼和探究。可是,这一幕只交代了戏剧的人物、故事发生的时间、地点、起因及贯穿整个故事的那张百万英镑钞票的由来,并没有介绍故事的发展、冲突与高潮,同时,这是学生高中阶段第一次接触英语戏剧剧本,因此,阅读教学的目标设定为:

1. 学生能阅读戏剧,知道戏剧是由人物、旁白、台词、舞台说明、情节等要素构成;

2. 理解Henry作为“理想人选”的四个条件:intelligent enough; honest enough; poor enough; a stranger;

3. 体悟马克·吐温讽刺幽默的语言特点,感知修辞的魅力。

教学设计:

1. 聚焦文本特征,了解戏剧剧本的格式和编排特点,补充更多的细节信息,为深度阅读做准备。

2. 细读旁白,提取背景信息(when/where/who/what),分析双方(Henry and brothers)的差异,了解故事始于“bet”。

3. 探究Henry作为理想人选的四个条件(in a difficult situation和a different nationality已从旁白获知)。分析Henry的语言、动作等,洞察其情感变化。通过基于关键信息的品质分析,总结另外两个条件:good manners and great personality。

4. 提供原作Henry视角的叙述,验证步骤3的分析。

5. 品读Line 28-48的语言,体悟作者运用讽刺幽默(对比)的方式批判“金钱至上”的社会。

6. 补全短文,提炼主题意义。

7. 深度思考三个评判性问题,培养批判思维和多元思维。

(1) Who do you think will win the bet, Roderick or Oliver? Why?

(2) Does the writer only try to attack the “money talks” society with this story?

(3) Are there any similar bets nowadays? If yes, why?

8. 还原社会背景和作者个人经历,探究写作目的。

9. 布置读书报告作业,包括两部分:故事和评价。

本期编排:1 设计思路 2 文本 3 课件展示